Monday, December 24, 2007

Clinical analysis of computed tomography-staged orbital cellulitis in children

Clinical analysis of computed tomography-staged orbital cellulitis in children
J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007 Dec

Ho CF, Huang YC, Wang CJ, Chiu CH, Lin TY.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bacterial infection of the orbital structures can affect all age groups, but is more frequent in pediatric populations. Prompt recognition, correct diagnosis, and adequate management are important if serious complications are to be avoided. This study sought to delineate the clinical, bacteriological and radiological findings, management and outcome of orbital cellulitis.

METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed 80 children admitted to Chang Gung Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis who were staged by computed tomography (CT), between January 1999 and August 2005. The staging classification was as follows: stage I, inflammatory edema (preseptal); stage II, subperiosteal phlegmon and abscess; stage III, orbital cellulitis; stage IV, orbital abscess; and stage V, ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus thrombosis. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: preseptal (stage I) and postseptal (stage II-V).

RESULTS: Of the 80 children, 50 were male and the mean age was 6.8 years. Sinusitis and upper respiratory tract infection were the most common predisposing factors. Forty one percent of patients in stage I presented with symptoms that indicated postseptal involvement. The patients with postseptal involvement had a significantly higher rate of proptosis and limitation of extraocular motility. Bacterial pathogens were identified in 31 patients (39%), the 2 most common pathogens being Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Ten patients (13%) had polymicrobial infection. Twenty three patients underwent sinus and/or orbital and/or intracranial surgery, including all 5 patients (100%) in stage IV, 3 of 6 patients (50%) in stage III, 13 of 35 patients (37%) in stage II, and 2 of 34 patients (6%) in stage I. Complete resolution without complication was achieved in 72 children. Eight patients had complications, including intracranial infection in 3, recollection of abscess in 2, ophthalmoplegia in 2, and corneal scar in 1.

CONCLUSIONS: Proptosis and limitation of extraocular motility may be considered the most important signs on CT examination in children with suspicious orbital cellulitis. Given that polymicrobial infection is common, broad-spectrum antibiotics are indicated initially. Surgery should be considered not only when an abscess is demonstrated by CT scan but also if clinical deterioration occurs within 24 to 36 h of adequate intravenous antibiotic treatment.

Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

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Friday, December 21, 2007

Submandibular cellulitis (Ludwig's angina) associated to a complex odontoma erupted into the oral cavity. Case report and literature review.

Submandibular cellulitis (Ludwig's angina) associated to a complex odontoma erupted into the oral cavity. Case report and literature review.
Minerva Stomatol. 2007 Nov-Dec

Bertolai R, Acocella A, Sacco R, Agostini T.
Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Odontostomatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

The clinical presentation of Ludwig's angina consists in a severe expanding cellulitis causing swelling of the floor of the mouth, tongue and submandibular region, thus resulting in a possible obstruction of the airway and in a rapid progress in deep neck soft tissue infection and mediastinitis with potentially fatal consequences. Frequently, submandibular cellulitis develops from an acute infection spreading from the lower molar teeth. Mandibular fractures, traumatic laceration of the floor of the mouth, and peritonsillar abscesses are other concomitant clinical features. A case of Ludwig's angina associated with a large erupted odontoma and with a deeply impacted third molar displaced to the border of the mandible is described. The patient was affected by enlargement of submandibular space, marked face swelling causing an evident face deformity, tenderness and redness of the neck and limited movement of the neck and mouth. In the past, Ludwig's angina was frequently fatal, however aggressive surgical and medical therapy have significantly reduced the mortality rate. The reported case can be considered as important, not only because of the rarity of the odontoma eruption in the oral cavity, but mainly for the extent of the clinical manifestation of a lesion usually described in literature as asymptomatic.

PMID: 18091716 [PubMed - in process]

Ludwig's angina: a clinical review.

Srirompotong S, Art-Smart T.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, 40002 Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Ludwig's angina is caused by a rapidly expanding cellulitis of the floor of the mouth and is characterized by a brawny induration of the floor and suprahyoid region (bilaterally), with an elevation of the tongue potentially obstructing the airway. In the pre-antibiotic era, Ludwig's angina was frequently fatal; however, antibiotics and aggressive surgical intervention have significantly reduced mortality. We reviewed nine patients with Ludwig's angina between July 1996 and June 2002, all of whom presented with fever, neck swelling, bilateral submandibular swelling and elevation of the tongue. In eight patients (89%) a dental infection appeared to be the underlying cause. High-dosage intravenous antibiotics directed towards the suspected causative microorganisms were given to all of the patients: two were treated successfully with conservative medical management, while seven underwent surgical drainage (a tracheotomy was necessary in one patient). Routine aerobic cultures were done on samples of drained material and the predominant microorganisms were Streptococcus species in two patients; there were none in the other five. Two patients had post-operative complications, but all recovered.

PMID: 12937916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Saturday, December 15, 2007

Approach to the patient with presumed cellulitis.

Approach to the patient with presumed cellulitis.

Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2007

Kroshinsky D, Grossman ME, Fox LP.
Department of Dermatology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.

Dermatologists frequently are consulted in the evaluation and management of the patient with cellulitic-appearing skin. For routine cellulitis, the clinical presentation and patient symptoms are usually sufficient for an accurate diagnosis. However, when the clinical presentation is somewhat atypical, or if the patient fails to respond to appropriate therapy for cellulitis because of routine bacterial pathogens, the differential diagnosis should be rapidly expanded. We discuss the approach to the patient with presumed cellulitis, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis of cellulitis in both the immunocompetent and immunucompromised patient.

PMID: 18070684 [PubMed - in process]

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